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Cattle - Wikipedia Milk money slot machine download

Cattle —colloquially cows [note 1] —are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinaeare the most widespread species of the genus Bosand are most commonly classified collectively as Bos taurus.

Cattle are raised as livestock for meat beef and vealas dairy animals for milk and other dairy productsand as draft animals oxen or bullocks that pull cartsplows and other implements. Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Around 10, years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in southeast Turkey.

Cattle were originally identified milk money slot machine download three separate species: Bos taurusthe European or "taurine" cattle including similar types from Africa and Asia ; Bos indicusthe zebu ; and the extinct Bos primigeniusthe aurochs.

Milk money slot machine download aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and taurine cattle. Bos taurus primigeniusBos taurus indicusand Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other closely related species.

Hybrids such as milk money slot machine download beefalo breed can even occur between taurine cattle and either species of bisonleading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bosmilk money slot machine download well. The aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, and much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, and the last known individual died in MazoviaPoland, in about article source Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals.

It was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catelitself from medieval Latin capitale 'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin http://pay.auads.info/888-casino-88-euro-auszahlen.php 'head'. Cattle originally meant movable personal propertyespecially livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property the check this out, which also included wild or small free-roaming animals such as chickens — they were sold as part of the land.

This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine". The Scots language singular is coo or couand the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers milk money slot machine download wildlife.

Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is usually restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions. The terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and the United States.

Cattle can only be used in the plural and not in the singular: No universally used singular form in modern English of cattle exists, other than the sex- and age-specific terms such as cow, bull, steer and heifer.

Historically, "ox" was milk money slot machine download a sex-specific term for adult cattle, but generally this is now used only for draft cattle milk money slot machine download, especially adult castrated males.

The term is also incorporated into the names of other species, such as the musk ox and "grunting milk money slot machine download yakand is used in some areas to describe certain cattle products such as ox-hide and oxtail.

Cow is in general use as a singular for the collective cattledespite the objections by those who insist it to be a female-specific term. Although the phrase "that cow is a bull" is absurd from a lexicographic standpoint, the word cow is easy to use when a singular milk money slot machine download needed and the sex is unknown or irrelevant — when "there is a cow in the road", for example.

Further, any herd of fully mature cattle in or near a pasture is statistically likely casino paypal uk consist mostly link cows, so the term is probably accurate even in the restrictive sense.

Other than the few bulls needed for breeding, the vast majority of male cattle are castrated as calves and slaughtered for meat before the age of three years. Thus, in a pastured herd, any calves or herd bulls usually are clearly distinguishable from the cows due to distinctively different sizes and clear anatomical differences. Colloquiallymore general non specific terms may denote cattle when a singular form is needed.

Australian, New Zealand and British farmers use the term beast milk money slot machine download cattle beast. Bovine is also used in Britain. The term critter is common in the western United States and Canada, particularly when referring to young cattle. Cattle milk money slot machine download for human consumption are please click for source beef cattle.

Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the term beef plural beeves is still used in its archaic sense to refer click here an animal of either sex.

Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called resorts online casino nj cows or milking cows formerly milch cows. Most young male offspring of dairy cows are sold for vealand may be referred to as veal calves. The term dogies is used to describe orphaned calves in the context of ranch work in the American Westas in "Keep them dogies moving".

Other obsolete terms for cattle include "neat" this use survives in " neatsfoot oil ", extracted from the feet and legs of cattleand "beefing" young animal fit for slaughter. An onomatopoeic term for one of the most common sounds made by cattle is moo also called lowing. There are a number of other sounds made by cattle, including calves bawlingand bulls bellowing. Bawling is most common for cows after weaning of a calf.

The bullroarer makes a sound similar to a bull's territorial call. Cattle are large quadrupedal ungulate mammals with cloven hooves. Most breeds have hornswhich can be as large as the Texas Longhorn or small like a scur. Careful genetic selection has allowed polled hornless cattle to become widespread. Cattle are ruminantsmilk money slot machine download their digestive system is highly specialized milk money slot machine download allow the use of poorly digestible plants as food.

Cattle have one stomach with four source, the rumenreticulumomasumand abomasumwith the rumen being the largest compartment. The reticulum, the smallest compartment, is known as the "honeycomb".

Cattle sometimes consume metal objects which are deposited in the reticulum and irritation from the metal objects causes hardware disease. The omasum's main check this out is to absorb water and nutrients from the digestible milk money slot machine download. The omasum is known as the "many plies".

The abomasum is like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the "true click here. Cattle are known for regurgitating and re-chewing their food, known as cud chewing, like most ruminants. While the animal is feeding, the food is swallowed without being chewed and goes into the rumen for storage until the animal can find a quiet place to continue the digestion process.

The food is regurgitated, a mouthful at a time, back up to the mouth, where the food, now called the cudis chewed by the molars, grinding down the coarse vegetation to small particles. The cud is then swallowed again and further digested by specialized microorganisms in the rumen. These microbes are primarily responsible for decomposing cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids cattle use as their primary metabolic fuel.

The microbes inside the rumen also synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogenous sources, such as urea and ammonia. As these microbes milk money slot machine download in the rumen, older generations die and their cells continue on through the digestive tract. These cells are then partially digested in the small intestines, allowing cattle to gain a high-quality protein source.

These features allow cattle go here thrive on grasses and other tough vegetation. The gestation period for a cow is about nine months long. Adult size and weight vary significantly among breeds and sex.

Breeding stock may be allowed a longer lifespan, occasionally living as long as 25 years. The oldest recorded cow, Big Berthadied at the age of 48 in On farms it is very common to use artificial insemination AIa medically assisted reproduction technique consisting of the artificial deposition of semen in the female's genital tract. It consists of transferring, to the uterine cavityspermatozoa previously collected and processed, with the selection of morphologically more normal and mobile spermatozoa.

A cow's udder contains two pairs of mammary glands milk money slot machine download, commonly referred to as teats creating four "quarters". Bulls become fertile at about seven months of age. Their fertility is closely related to the size of their testiclesand one simple test of fertility is to measure the circumference of the scrotum: Bulls have a milk money slot machine download penis.

Given the small amount of erectile tissue, there is little enlargement after erection. The penis is quite rigid when non-erect, milk money slot machine download becomes even more rigid during erection. Protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure. Induced ovulation can be manipulated to produce australia online gambling best benefits.

For example, to synchronise ovulation of the cattle to benefit dairy farming. The weight of adult cattle varies, depending on the breed. Bulls will be a bit larger than cows of the same breed by a few hundred kilograms. It is difficult to milk money slot machine download or average out the weight of all cattle because different kinds have different averages of weights. In the Milk money slot machine download States, the average weight of beef cattle has steadily increased, especially since the s, requiring the building of new slaughterhouses able to handle larger carcasses.

New packing plants in the s stimulated a large increase in cattle weights. Cattle tested in a radial arm maze are able to remember the locations of high-quality food for at least 30 days. Although they initially learn to avoid low-quality food, this memory diminishes over the same duration.

Calves are capable of discrimination learning [51] and adult cattle compare favourably with small mammals in their learning ability in the Closed-field Test.

They are also able to discriminate between familiar individuals, and among humans. Cattle can tell the difference between familiar and unfamiliar animals of the same species conspecifics.

Studies show they behave less aggressively toward familiar individuals when they are forming a new group. In audio play-back studies, calves prefer their own mother's vocalizations compared to milk money slot machine download vocalizations of an unfamiliar mother. In laboratory studies using images, cattle can discriminate between images of the heads of cattle and other animal species. Furthermore, they are able to categorize images as familiar and unfamiliar individuals.

When mixed with other individuals, cloned calves from the same donor form subgroups, indicating that kin discrimination occurs and milk money slot machine download be a basis of grouping behaviour.

It has also been shown using images of cattle that both artificially inseminated and cloned calves have similar cognitive capacities of kin and non-kin discrimination. Cattle can recognize familiar individuals. Visual individual recognition is a more complex mental process than visual discrimination.

It requires the recollection of the learned idiosyncratic identity of an individual that has been previously encountered and the formation of a mental representation.


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